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Org Biomol Chem. 2012 Feb 7;10(5):911-20. doi: 10.1039/c1ob06588b. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

Squaraine dyes in PDT: from basic design to in vivo demonstration.

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Photosciences and Photonics, Chemical Sciences and Technology Division, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR-NIIST), Trivandrum, 695 019, India.


The design and development of novel squaraine dyes as sensitisers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) applications has grown tremendously in the last decade from the time when a squaraine dye was proposed to be a potential candidate, to-date when the use of such dyes have been demonstrated in animal models for skin cancer. This perspective article highlights the basic design, tuning of absorption, triplet excited state and two-photon absorption properties and recent developments of the squaraines as PDT sensitisers.

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