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Cell Calcium. 2012 Mar-Apr;51(3-4):300-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2011.11.006. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Regulation of calcium in pancreatic α- and β-cells in health and disease.

Author information

1
Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK. patrik.rorsman@ocdem.ox.ac.uk

Abstract

The glucoregulatory hormones insulin and glucagon are released from the β- and α-cells of the pancreatic islets. In both cell types, secretion is secondary to firing of action potentials, Ca(2+)-influx via voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channels, elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) and initiation of Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. Here we discuss the mechanisms that underlie the reciprocal regulation of insulin and glucagon secretion by changes in plasma glucose, the roles played by different types of voltage-gated Ca(2+)-channel present in α- and β-cells and the modulation of hormone secretion by Ca(2+)-dependent and -independent processes. We also consider how subtle changes in Ca(2+)-signalling may have profound impact on β-cell performance and increase risk of developing type-2 diabetes.

PMID:
22177710
PMCID:
PMC3334273
DOI:
10.1016/j.ceca.2011.11.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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