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J Urol. 2012 Feb;187(2):652-5. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2011.10.017. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Detailed assessment of stomal incontinence after Malone antegrade continence enema: development of a new grading scale.

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Department of Urology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.



The Malone antegrade continence enema procedure improves quality of life for patients with bowel dysfunction. Stomal leakage has been reported, although no objective scale describes this type of incontinence. The value of cecal imbrication has not been fully elucidated on a large scale.


We retrospectively reviewed pediatric patients who underwent Malone antegrade continence enema by a single surgeon between 2000 and 2010. Detailed information regarding degree and frequency of stomal incontinence was longitudinally recorded and analyzed. A classification system was developed, with grade 0 defined as no stomal incontinence, grade 1 a drop at the stoma or spotting on clothes 1 time or less per month, grade 2 spotting on clothing 2 to 4 times per month and grade 3 any leakage greater than 4 times per month.


The Malone antegrade continence enema procedure was laparoscopic nonimbricated in 51 patients, open nonimbricated in 16 and open imbricated in 12. Mean followup was 3.5 years. Of cases where the appendix was not imbricated stomal incontinence was grade 0 in 69%, grade 1 in 19%, grade 2 in 7.5% and grade 3 in 4.5%. Two patients (3%) requested revision due to stomal incontinence. No patient who underwent Malone antegrade continence enema with imbrication had stomal leakage (p = 0.001).


We reviewed the spectrum of stomal incontinence following Malone antegrade continence enema in 75 patients and developed a new grading scale to help standardize this complication. Imbrication provided stomal continence in all patients. Without imbrication almost 90% had no stomal incontinence or grade 1 leakage after long-term followup.

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