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Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 May;125(5):352-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01814.x. Epub 2011 Dec 19.

A systematic review of correlates of physical activity in patients with schizophrenia.

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University Psychiatric Centre Catholic University Leuven, Campus Kortenberg, The Netherlands.



The present review evaluates systematically the published quantitative studies of correlates of PA in patients with schizophrenia.


EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CINAHL and PEDro were searched from their inception to 1 July 2011 combining the medical subject heading 'schizophrenia' with 'physical activity' or 'physical inactivity' or 'exercise' or 'health education' or 'health behaviour' or 'health promotion'.


Out of 68 potentially eligible studies, 25 papers (n = 25,013) evaluating 36 correlates were included. Correlates consistently associated with lower PA participation are the presence of negative symptoms and cardio-metabolic comorbidity. Also, side-effects of antipsychotic medication, lack of knowledge on cardiovascular disease risk factors, no belief in the health benefits, a lower self-efficacy, other unhealthy lifestyle habits and social isolation correlated with lower PA participation. The quality of the PA measurement was not related to the proportion of significant associations (χ(2) = 3.8, P = 0.07). Current gaps in literature that need to be examined more in detail are the role of environmental and policy-level factors on PA participation in patients with schizophrenia.


All correlates should be confirmed in prospective studies, and interventions to improve the modifiable variables should be developed and evaluated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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