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Addiction. 2012 Jun;107(6):1099-108. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03769.x. Epub 2012 Feb 28.

Collaborative behavioral management among parolees: drug use, crime and re-arrest in the Step'n Out randomized trial.

Author information

1
Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA. pfriedmann@lifespan.org

Abstract

AIMS:

To determine whether collaborative behavioral management (CBM) reduces substance use, crime and re-arrest among drug-involved parolees.

DESIGN:

Step'n Out was a randomized behavioral trial of CBM versus standard parole (SP) during 2004-08. CBM adapted evidence-based role induction, behavioral contracting and contingent reinforcement to provide parole officer/treatment counselor dyads with positive tools in addition to sanctions to manage parolees' behavior over 12 weeks.

SETTING:

Six parole offices in five states in the USA.

PARTICIPANTS:

Parolee volunteers with a mandate for addiction treatment and a minimum of 3 months of parole (n = 476). Follow-up was 94% at 3 months and 86% at 9 months.

MEASUREMENTS:

Drug use and crime in a given month from calendar interviews 3 and 9 months after parole initiation, and re-arrests from criminal justice administrative data.

FINDINGS:

The CBM group had fewer months in which they used their primary drug [adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05, 0.78, P = 0.02] and alcohol (ARR 0.38, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.66, P = 0.006) over follow-up. CBM had its greatest effects among parolees who reported marijuana or another 'non-hard' drug as their primary drug; parolees who preferred stimulants or opiates did not benefit. No differences were seen in total crime, re-arrests or parole revocations.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collaborative behavioral management may reduce substance use among primary marijuana or other 'non-hard' drug-using parolees without increasing revocations. Because the majority of drug violation arrests in the United States are for marijuana, these findings have important implications for the management of a substantial proportion of the US community correctional population.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00302575.

PMID:
22175445
PMCID:
PMC3321077
DOI:
10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03769.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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