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PLoS Curr. 2011 Nov 30;3:RRN1288. doi: 10.1371/currents.RRN1288.

Seven-year clinical follow-up of premanifest carriers of Huntington's disease.

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1
Neuropsychologist and researcher, Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Centre, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands; Leiden University Medical Center; Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden; Bronovo hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands and LUMC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Detecting subtle clinical abnormalities in the 'premanifest' phase of Huntington's disease (HD) is of importance in the development of instruments to monitor early therapeutic intervention trials. The current study examined changes in motor function, cognition and behaviour over a period of seven years in premanifest carriers of the HD gene mutation. Twenty-nine carriers without unequivocal motor signs of HD and 43 non-carrier controls were prospectively examined four times. The assessments consisted of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and an extensive neuropsychological test battery addressing global cognitive function, memory, language and executive function. Rate of Change (RoC) analysis was performed to measure longitudinal differences between carriers and non-carriers. Carriers performed consistently worse on executive function (Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Stroop, Trail Making Test (TMT) and WAIS-R arithmetic). Over the years, carriers showed a decline in memory and concentration function (Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)) and in motor function (UHDRS motor scale). Changes over time could be particularly ascribed to carriers converting to manifest HD. These results demonstrate that standardized motor assessments and objective memory and concentration tasks are sensitive to change over a period of 7 years, specifically in carriers converting to manifest HD. Executive tasks also showed subtle cognitive abnormalities in premanifest HD, but a decline over time could not be demonstrated.

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