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J Psychiatr Res. 2012 Mar;46(3):323-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2011.10.012. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Conduct disorder and adult psychiatric diagnoses: associations and gender differences in the U.S. adult population.

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Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 69, New York, NY 10032, USA.


The authors' objective was to examine the presence of Axis I and II psychiatric disorders among adult males and females with a history in childhood and/or adolescence of conduct disorder (CD). Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S.


Face-to-face interviews of more than 34,000 adults ages 18 years and older were conducted during 2004-2005 using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity, CD was associated with all Axis I and II disorders, particularly substance use disorders (SUD), bipolar disorder, and histrionic personality disorders. After adjusting for gender differences in the general population, men had significantly greater odds of social anxiety disorder and paranoid personality disorder, whereas women were more likely to have SUD. Furthermore, there was dose-response relationship between number of CD symptoms and risk for most psychiatric disorders. From a clinical standpoint, knowledge of the gender differences in associations of CD with other psychiatric disorders in adulthood may be informative of developmental pathways of the disorder, and of possible gender-specific risk factors. Early recognition and treatment of CD may help prevent the development of adult-onset disorders.

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