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J Med Virol. 2012 Feb;84(2):290-7. doi: 10.1002/jmv.23185.

Detection and molecular characterization of noroviruses and sapoviruses in children admitted to hospital with acute gastroenteritis in Vietnam.

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Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, The National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.


Noroviruses (NoV) and sapoviruses (SaV) are recognized as important causes of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. In this study, the prevalence and genetic variability of NoV and SaV were determined in hospitalized children <5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis in Hanoi, Vietnam. A total of 501 fecal specimens collected between November-2007 and October-2008, that previously had been tested for rotavirus (RV), were tested for NoV and SaV by realtime RT-PCR. Positive samples were genotyped by conventional RT-PCR followed by sequencing. GII NoV was detected in 180 (36%) and SaV in 7 (1.4%) of the samples. NoV was detected year-round ranging from 9.5% in April to 81.5% in September among RV negative samples. NoV GII.4 Minerva (2006b) was the dominant genotype (93%) with a few other genotypes detected including GII.3 (4.4%), GII.13 (1.7%), and GII.2 (0.6%) but no GI strains. Only GI and GII SaV strains were detected in this study. No difference in NoV prevalence between age groups was noted. Frequency of vomiting or fever was similar between children with NoV and RV infection, yet, NoV caused diarrhea with longer duration. In conclusion, NoV is the second most frequent cause of diarrhea in hospitalized children in North Vietnam.

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