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Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012 Mar;39(3):463-73. doi: 10.1007/s00259-011-1980-0. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

18F-radiolabeled analogs of exendin-4 for PET imaging of GLP-1 in insulinoma.

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Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.



Glucagon-like peptide type 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin peptide that augments glucose-stimulated insulin release following oral consumption of nutrients. Its message is transmitted via a G protein-coupled receptor called GLP-1R, which is colocalized with pancreatic β-cells. The GLP-1 system is responsible for enhancing insulin release, inhibiting glucagon production, inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis, inhibiting gastric mobility, and suppression of appetite. The abundance of GLP-1R in pancreatic β-cells in insulinoma, a cancer of the pancreas, and the activity of GLP-1 in the cardiovascular system have made GLP-1R a target for molecular imaging.


We prepared (18)F radioligands for GLP-1R by the reaction of [(18)F]FBEM, a maleimide prosthetic group, with [Cys(0)] and [Cys(40)] analogs of exendin-4. The binding affinity, cellular uptake and internalization, in vitro stability, and uptake and specificity of uptake of the resulting compounds were determined in an INS-1 xenograft model in nude mice.


The [(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(x)]-exendin-4 analogs were obtained in good yield (34.3 ± 3.4%, n = 11), based on the starting compound [(18)F]FBEM), and had a specific activity of 45.51 ± 16.28 GBq/μmol (1.23 ± 0.44 Ci/μmol, n = 7) at the end of synthesis. The C-terminal isomer, [(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(40)]-exendin-4, had higher affinity for INS-1 tumor cells (IC(50) 1.11 ± 0.057 nM) and higher tumor uptake (25.25 ± 3.39 %ID/g at 1 h) than the N-terminal isomer, [(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(0)]-exendin-4 (IC(50) 2.99 ± 0.06 nM, uptake 7.20 ± 1.26 %ID/g at 1 h). Uptake of both isomers into INS-1 tumor, pancreas, stomach, and lung could be blocked by preinjection of nonradiolabeled [Cys(x)]-exendin-4 (p < 0.05).


[(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(40)]-exendin-4 and [(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(0)]-exendin-4 have high affinity for GLP-1R and display similar in vitro cell internalization. The higher uptake into INS-1 xenograft tumors exhibited by [(18)F]FBEM-[Cys(40)]-exendin-4 suggests that this compound would be the better tracer for imaging GLP-1R.

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