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Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2012 Apr;22(2):79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.gde.2011.11.001. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Enhancer and promoter interactions-long distance calls.

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1
Laboratory of Cellular and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20982, United States.

Abstract

In metazoans, enhancers of gene transcription must often exert their effects over tens of kilobases of DNA. Over the past decade it has become clear that to do this, enhancers come into close proximity with target promoters with the looping away of intervening sequences. In a few cases proteins that are involved in the establishment or maintenance of these loops have been revealed but how the proper gene target is selected remains mysterious. Chromatin insulators had been appreciated as elements that play a role in enhancer fidelity through their enhancer blocking or barrier activity. However, recent work suggests more direct participation of insulators in enhancer-gene interactions. The emerging view begins to incorporate transcription activation by distant enhancers with large scale nuclear architecture and subnuclear movement.

PMID:
22169023
PMCID:
PMC3342482
DOI:
10.1016/j.gde.2011.11.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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