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J Med Chem. 2012 Jan 26;55(2):735-42. doi: 10.1021/jm201238p. Epub 2012 Jan 5.

Discovery and synthesis of namalide reveals a new anabaenopeptin scaffold and peptidase inhibitor.

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Laboratory of Bioorganic Chemistry, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, United States.


The discovery, structure elucidation, and solid-phase synthesis of namalide, a marine natural product, are described. Namalide is a cyclic tetrapeptide; its macrocycle is formed by only three amino acids, with an exocyclic ureido phenylalanine moiety at its C-terminus. The absolute configuration of namalide was established, and analogs were generated through Fmoc-based solid phase peptide synthesis. We found that only natural namalide and not its analogs containing l-Lys or l-allo-Ile inhibited carboxypeptidase A at submicromolar concentrations. In parallel, an inverse virtual screening approach aimed at identifying protein targets of namalide selected carboxypeptidase A as the third highest scoring hit. Namalide represents a new anabaenopeptin-type scaffold, and its protease inhibitory activity demonstrates that the 13-membered macrolactam can exhibit similar activity as the more common hexapeptides.

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