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G Ital Nefrol. 2011 Nov-Dec;28(6):648-53.

[A case of Xanthinuria in a patient with marked hypouricemia].

[Article in Italian]

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U.O.C. Nefrologia e Dialisi, P.O. S. Caterina Novella, Galatina (Lecce), Italy.


Xanthinuria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with a deficiency of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), which normally catalyzes the conversion of hypoxanthine to uric acid. The effects of this deficit are an elevated concentration of hypoxanthine and xanthine in the blood and urine, hypouricemia, and hypouricuria. The deficit in XOR can be isolated (type I xanthinuria) or associated with a deficit in aldehyde oxidase (type II xanthinuria) and sulfite oxidase (type III xanthinuria). While the first two variants have a benign course, are often asymptomatic (20%), and clinically indistinguishable, type III xanthinuria is a harmful form that leads to infant death due to neurological damage. The clinical symptoms (kidney stones, CKD, muscle and joint pain, peptic ulcer) are the result of the accumulation of xanthine, which is highly insoluble, in the body fluids. We describe a case of type I xanthinuria in a 52-year-old woman who presented with hypouricemia, hypouricuria and kidney stones. The diagnosis was based on purine catabolite levels in urine and serum measured by 3 nonroutine methods: high-pressure liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and magnetic resonance imaging. To identify the type of xanthinuria the allopurinol test was used. We believe that these tests will facilitate the diagnosis of xantinuria especially in asymptomatic patients without the need for a biopsy of the liver or intestines, which is useful only for scientific purposes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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