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Biomed Opt Express. 2011 Dec 1;2(12):3284-94. doi: 10.1364/BOE.2.003284. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Modeling diffuse reflectance from homogeneous semi-infinite turbid media for biological tissue applications: a Monte Carlo study.

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Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.


Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is one of the simplest and widely used techniques for the non-invasive study of biological tissues but no exact analytical solution exists for the problem of diffuse reflectance from turbid media such as biological tissues. In this work, a general treatment of the problem of diffuse reflectance from a homogeneous semi-infinite turbid medium is presented using Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the results of the Monte Carlo method, simple semi-empirical analytical solutions are developed valid for a wide range of collection geometries corresponding to various optical detector diameters. This approach may be useful for the quick and accurate modeling of diffuse reflectance from tissues.


(170.3660) Light propagation in tissues; (170.6510) Spectroscopy, tissue diagnostics; (170.7050) Turbid media

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