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Pathol Oncol Res. 2012 Jul;18(3):579-84. doi: 10.1007/s12253-011-9479-3. Epub 2011 Dec 11.

Subacute toxicity assessment of water disinfection byproducts on zebrafish.

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1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University Budapest, Üllői út 26, 1085 Budapest, Hungary.


Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.

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