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Mol Imaging Biol. 2012 Jun;14(3):261-76. doi: 10.1007/s11307-011-0528-9.

Dual-labeling strategies for nuclear and fluorescence molecular imaging: a review and analysis.

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Center for Molecular Imaging, The Brown Foundation Institute of Molecular Medicine, The University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.


Molecular imaging is used for the detection of biochemical processes through the development of target-specific contrast agents. Separately, modalities such as nuclear and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have been shown to non-invasively monitor disease. More recently, merging of these modalities has shown promise owing to their comparable detection sensitivity and benefited from the development of dual-labeled imaging agents. Dual-labeled agents hold promise for whole-body and intraoperative imaging and could bridge the gap between surgical planning and image-guided resection with a single, molecularly targeted agent. In this review, we summarized the literature for dual-labeled antibodies and peptides that have been developed and have highlighted key considerations for incorporating NIRF dyes into nuclear labeling strategies. We also summarized our findings on several commercially available NIRF dyes and offer perspectives for developing a toolkit to select the optimal NIRF dye and radiometal combination for multimodality imaging.

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