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J Infect Dis. 2012 Feb 1;205(3):458-65. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jir749. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic on pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations in the United States.

Author information

1
Division of International Epidemiology and Population Studies, Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. weinbergerdm@mail.nih.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Infection with influenza virus increases the risk for developing pneumococcal disease. The A/H1N1 influenza pandemic in autumn 2009 provided a unique opportunity to evaluate this relationship.

METHODS:

Using weekly age-, state-, and cause-specific hospitalizations from the US State Inpatient Databases of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003-2009, we quantified the increase in pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalization rates above a seasonal baseline during the pandemic period.

RESULTS:

We found a significant increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations from late August to mid-December 2009, which corresponded to the timing of highest pandemic influenza activity. Individuals aged 5-19 years, who have a low baseline level of pneumococcal disease, experienced the largest relative increase in pneumococcal hospitalizations (ratio, 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.4-1.7]), whereas the largest absolute increase was observed among individuals aged 40-64 years. In contrast, there was no excess disease in the elderly. Geographical variation in the timing of excess pneumococcal hospitalizations matched geographical patterns for the fall pandemic influenza wave.

CONCLUSIONS:

The 2009 influenza pandemic had a significant impact on the rate of pneumococcal pneumonia hospitalizations, with the magnitude of this effect varying between age groups and states, mirroring observed variations in influenza activity.

PMID:
22158564
PMCID:
PMC3276240
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jir749
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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