Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Mar;120(3):393-8. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1103715. Epub 2011 Dec 8.

Estimated acute effects of ambient ozone and nitrogen dioxide on mortality in the Pearl River Delta of southern China.

Author information

  • 1SKJ Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, and Centre for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.



Epidemiologic studies have attributed adverse health effects to air pollution; however, controversy remains regarding the relationship between ambient oxidants [ozone (O₃) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] and mortality, especially in Asia. We conducted a four-city time-series study to investigate acute effects of O₃ and NO₂ in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China, using data from 2006 through 2008.


We used generalized linear models with Poisson regression incorporating natural spline functions to analyze acute mortality in association with O₃ and NO₂, with PM₁₀ (particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter) included as a major confounder. Effect estimates were determined for individual cities and for the four cities as a whole. We stratified the analysis according to high- and low- exposure periods for O₃.


We found consistent positive associations between ambient oxidants and daily mortality across the PRD cities. Overall, 10-μg/m³ increases in average O₃ and NO₂ concentrations over the previous 2 days were associated with 0.81% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63%, 1.00%] and 1.95% (95% CI: 1.62%, 2.29%) increases in total mortality, respectively, with stronger estimated effects for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. After adjusting for PM₁₀, estimated effects of O₃ on total and cardiovascular mortality were stronger for exposure during high-exposure months (September through November), whereas respiratory mortality was associated with O₃ exposure during nonpeak exposure months only.


Our findings suggest significant acute mortality effects of O₃ and NO₂ in the PRD and strengthen the rationale for further limiting the ambient pollution levels in the area.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center