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J Immunol. 2012 Jan 15;188(2):844-53. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101736. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Regulation of the inflammatory response: enhancing neutrophil infiltration under chronic inflammatory conditions.

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Program of Cellular Biology and Immunology, Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.


Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN]) infiltration plays a central role in inflammation and is also a major cause of tissue damage. Thus, PMN infiltration must be tightly controlled. Using zymosan-induced peritonitis as an in vivo PMN infiltration model, we show in this study that PMN response and infiltration were significantly enhanced in mice experiencing various types of systemic inflammation, including colitis and diabetes. Adoptive transfer of leukocytes from mice with inflammation into healthy recipients or from healthy into inflammatory recipients followed by inducing peritonitis demonstrated that both circulating PMN and tissue macrophages were altered under inflammatory conditions and that they collectively contributed to enhanced PMN infiltration. Detailed analyses of dextran sulfate sodium-elicited colitis revealed that enhancement of PMN infiltration and macrophage function occurred only at the postacute/chronic phase of inflammation and was associated with markedly increased IL-17A in serum. In vitro and ex vivo treatment of isolated PMN and macrophages confirmed that IL-17A directly modulates these cells and significantly enhances their inflammatory responses. Neutralization of IL-17A eliminated the enhancement of PMN infiltration and IL-6 production and also prevented severe tissue damage in dextran sulfate sodium-treated mice. Thus, IL-17A produced at the chronic stage of colitis serves as an essential feedback signal that enhances PMN infiltration and promotes inflammation.

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