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Int J Risk Saf Med. 2011;23(4):193-200. doi: 10.3233/JRS-2011-0542.

Psychiatric drug-induced Chronic Brain Impairment (CBI): implications for long-term treatment with psychiatric medication.

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Center for Study of Empathic Therapy and Private Practice, Ithaca, New York, USA.


Understanding the hazards associated with long-term exposure to psychiatric drugs is very important but rarely emphasized in the scientific literature and clinical practice. Drawing on the scientific literature and clinical experience, the author describes the syndrome of Chronic Brain Impairment (CBI) which can be caused by any trauma to the brain including Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and long-term exposure to psychiatric medications. Knowledge of the syndrome should enable clinicians to more easily identify long-term adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs while enabling researchers to approach the problem with a more comprehensive understanding of the common elements of brain injury as they are manifested after long-term exposure to psychiatric medications. Treatment options are also discussed.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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