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Cancer Lett. 2012 May 1;318(1):86-92. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2011.12.006. Epub 2011 Dec 9.

B-DIM impairs radiation-induced survival pathways independently of androgen receptor expression and augments radiation efficacy in prostate cancer.

Author information

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Abstract

Increased consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with decreased risk in prostate cancer (PCa). The active compound in cruciferous vegetables appears to be the self dimerized product [3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM)] of indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Nutritional grade B-DIM (absorption-enhanced) has proven safe in a Phase I trial in PCa. We investigated the anti-cancer activity of B-DIM as a new biological approach to improve the effects of radiotherapy for hormone refractory prostate cancer cells, which were either positive or negative for androgen receptor (AR) expression. B-DIM inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner in both PC-3 (AR-) and C4-2B (AR+) cell lines. B-DIM was effective at increasing radiation-induced cell killing in both cell lines, independently of AR expression. B-DIM inhibited NF-κB and HIF-1α DNA activities and blocked radiation-induced activation of these transcription factors in both PC-3 and C4-2B cells. In C4-2B (AR+) cells, AR expression and nuclear localization were significantly increased by radiation. However, B-DIM abrogated the radiation-induced AR increased expression and trafficking to the nucleus, which was consistent with decreased PSA secretion. In vivo, treatment of PC-3 prostate tumors in nude mice with B-DIM and radiation resulted in significant primary tumor growth inhibition and control of metastasis to para-aortic lymph nodes. These studies demonstrate that B-DIM augments radiation-induced cell killing and tumor growth inhibition. B-DIM impairs critical survival signaling pathways activated by radiation, leading to enhanced cell killing. These novel observations suggest that B-DIM could be used as a safe compound to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy for castrate-resistant PCa.

PMID:
22155105
PMCID:
PMC3288414
DOI:
10.1016/j.canlet.2011.12.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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