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Med Hypotheses. 2012 Feb;78(2):341-8. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.11.016. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

A new three-dimensional model for emotions and monoamine neurotransmitters.

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Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine, Umeå University, SE-901 85 Umeå, Sweden.


The monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline have a great impact on mood, emotion and behavior. This article presents a new three-dimensional model for monoamine neurotransmitters and emotions. In the model, the monoamine systems are represented as orthogonal axes and the eight basic emotions, labeled according to Tomkins, are placed at each of the eight possible extreme values, represented as corners of a cube. The model may help in understanding human emotions, psychiatric illness and the effects of psychotropic drugs. However, further empirical studies are needed to establish its validity.

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