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J Cosmet Sci. 2011 Sep-Oct;62(5):469-82.

Diguanoside tetraphosphate (Gp₄G) is an epithelial cell and hair growth regulator.

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Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

Erratum in

  • J Cosmet Sci. 2012 Mar-Apr;63(2):157. Kowaltowski, Alica J [corrected to Kowaltowski, Alicia J].


Our goal was to study the effect of Gp₄G on skin tissues and unravel its intracellular action mechanisms. The effects of Gp₄G formulation, a liposomic solution of Artemia salina extract, on several epidermal, depmal, and hair follicle structures were quantified. A 50% increase in hair length and a 30% increase in the number of papilla cells were explained by the changes in the telogen/anagen hair follicle phases. Increasing skin blood vessels and fibroblast activation modified collagen arrangement in dermal tissues. Imunohistochemical staining revealed expressive increases of versican (VER) deposition in the treated animals (68%). Hela and fibroblast cells were used as in vitro models. Gp₄G enters both cell lines, with a hyperbolic saturation profile inducing an increase in the viabilities of Hela and fibroblast cells. Intracellular ATP and other nucleotides were quantified in Hela cells showing a 38% increase in intracellular ATP concentration and increases in the intracellular concentration of tri- , di- , and monophosphate nucleosides, changing the usual quasi-equilibrium state of nucleotide concentrations. We propose that this change in nucleotide equilibrium affects several biochemical pathways and explains the cell and tissue activations observed experimentally.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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