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J Forensic Leg Med. 2012 Jan;19(1):7-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jflm.2011.10.006. Epub 2011 Nov 2.

Excited delirium syndrome (ExDS): redefining an old diagnosis.

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Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California at San Diego Medical Center, 200 West Arbor Drive Mailcode #8676, San Diego, CA 92103, USA.


Recently, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) of the United States of America convened a meeting of experts in the area of Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS). The history of ExDS, the clinical presentation, the pathophysiology, differential diagnoses and management options were discussed. Though the specific pathophysiological pathways of ExDS have yet to be formally defined, considerable research has been undertaken on this topic. It is important for law enforcement, medical and other healthcare professionals to be familiar with current knowledge about the syndrome. This paper summarizes the current state and knowledge of ExDS.

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