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Eur J Clin Invest. 2012 Jun;42(6):649-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02631.x. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

Inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 predict outcome in stable systolic heart failure.

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Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.



Recent studies show associations between inorganic phosphate and risk of heart failure in the general population as well as between fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and outcome in coronary heart disease. This study was carried out to assess whether circulating levels of inorganic phosphate and FGF-23, a new central hormone in mineral bone metabolism, predict outcome in systolic heart failure.


Ninety-nine consecutive outpatients with systolic heart failure were enrolled. Mean (SD) age was 61 years (11), mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 33% (10), 82 patients were men, median estimated creatinine clearance was 83 mL/min (Q(1) -Q(3) 58-106), median NTproBNP level was 803 pg/mL (Q(1) -Q(3) 404-2757), median inorganic phosphate was 1·12 mM (Q(1) -Q(3) 1·02-1·22), median FGF-23 was 39·02 pg/mL (Q(1) -Q(3) 32·45-55·86) and median follow-up was 35 months. Associations between inorganic phosphate, FGF-23 and endpoints were assessed using Cox regression analyses.


Inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 levels were significantly higher (P < 0·001 and P = 0·009) in patients reaching the combined endpoint of cardiac hospitalization or death. FGF-23 (ln) predicted all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 5·042, P = 0·032) in a model adjusted for age, gender, estimated creatinine clearance, LVEF, New York Heart Association (NYHA) stage and NTproBNP level. Inorganic phosphate predicted heart failure hospitalization (HR 26·944, P = 0·021), cardiac hospitalization (HR 16·016, P = 0·017) and the combined endpoint (HR 13·294, P = 0·015) in models adjusted for the same co-variables.


The results of this study demonstrate the independent prognostic value of inorganic phosphate and FGF-23 in heart failure even in the context of established risk markers.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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