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DNA Cell Biol. 2012 May;31(5):845-55. doi: 10.1089/dna.2011.1263. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Organization and functional analysis of the 5' flanking regions of myostatin-1 and 2 genes from Larimichthys crocea.

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College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.


Myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and development. There are two types of MSTNs in fish, but little is known about their gene regulation. Here, the 5' flanking fragments of 1029 bp from MSTN-1 and 643 bp from MSTN-2 were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed in Larimichthys crocea. Both fragments contained CAAT box and several putative cis-regulatory elements. However, putative TATA box, MyoD, MEF3, SP1, USF, and GH-CSE sites were identified only in the L. crocea MSTN-1 (lcMSTN-1) promoter. Transcriptional activities of four fragments (1013, 841, 514, and 261 bp) truncated from lcMSTN-1 upstream region and two fragments (643 and 296 bp) from lcMSTN-2 upstream region were examined in vitro, using transient transfection in CIK and L6 cells. In CIK cells, the promoter activity correlated positively with the length of truncated fragments in both MSTN-1 and 2. The lcMSTN-2 promoter showed a higher activity than lcMSTN-1 in the corresponding region, which was consistent with MSTN gene expression in vivo. In L6 cells, lcMSTN-2 upstream showed an extremely high luciferase activity. These data indicated that both cloned 5' flanking sequences contained functional promoters, and that transcription regulation of lcMSTN-1 and 2 promoters was significantly different between mammalian and fish cells.

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