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Brain Inj. 2012;26(1):76-82. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2011.635360.

Accuracy of the S100β protein as a marker of brain damage in traumatic brain injury.

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NeuroCritical Care Unit, Virgen del Rocío University Hospital, Seville, Spain.



This study tested the hypothesis that S100β is a useful screening tool for detecting intracranial lesion (IL) in patients with a normal level of consciousness after traumatic brain injury (TBI).


One hundred and forty-three post-TBI patients without a decrease in consciousness (GCS = 15) and with at least one neurological symptom (e.g. transitory loss of consciousness, amnesia, headache, dizziness or vomiting) were prospectively included. A blood sample was drawn at 6-hours post-TBI. A routine CT scan was obtained within 24 hours post-injury. Diagnostic properties of S100β for IL prediction in CT scan findings were tested using ROC-analysis.


A total of 15 patients (10.5%) had IL. Serum levels were significantly higher in these patients. Significant differences were found between S100β levels and CT scan findings (p = 0.007). ROC-analysis showed that S100β is a useful tool for detecting the presence of IL in CT scans (p = 0.007). In this series, the best cut-off for S100β is 0.130 µg L(-1), with 100% sensitivity and 32.81% specificity.


Within the first 6 hours post-TBI, serum S100β seems to be an effective biochemical indicator of IL in patients without a decrease in consciousness. These results indicate that higher S100β cut-off values substantially improve the clinical relevance of this protein.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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