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J Sex Med. 2012 Mar;9(3):751-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1743-6109.2011.02567.x. Epub 2011 Dec 6.

Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature.

Author information

1
Department of Sexology and Gender Problems, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. gunter.heylens@uzgent.be

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The etiology of gender identity disorder (GID) remains largely unknown. In recent literature, increased attention has been attributed to possible biological factors in addition to psychological variables.

AIM:

To review the current literature on case studies of twins concordant or discordant for GID.

METHODS:

A systematic, comprehensive literature review.

RESULTS:

Of 23 monozygotic female and male twins, nine (39.1%) were concordant for GID; in contrast, none of the 21 same-sex dizygotic female and male twins were concordant for GID, a statistically significant difference (P=0.005). Of the seven opposite-sex twins, all were discordant for GID.

CONCLUSIONS:

These findings suggest a role for genetic factors in the development of GID.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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