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Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2011 Nov-Dec;6(6):426-36. doi: 10.1002/cmmi.438.

Dynamic manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can detect chronic cryoinjury-induced infarction in pig hearts in vivo.

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University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.


The purpose was to investigate whether MnCl(2) can serve as an MRI contrast agent to detect chronic cryoinjury infarction in pigs in vivo and whether MnCl(2) causes significant hemodynamic disturbances. Hearts were subjected to a topical 2 min cryothermia to establish myocardial infarction (MI). Thereafter GdDTPA-enhanced MRI was performed at 0, 1, 2 and 3 weeks using a 3 T scanner. Four weeks post-cryoinjury the pigs underwent in vivo Mn-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MnCl(2) (70 μmol/kg, 14 min) was infused i.v. intermittently (n = 4) or continuously (n = 5) and T(1)-weighted images were acquired every 2 min simultaneously recording heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Either infusion scheme led to an immediate increment in MR signal intensity (SI) within the left ventricular (LV) blood pool and LV normal and cryoinjured myocardium, which reached a maximum at the end of infusion. No significant difference was observed between the normal and cryoinjured myocardium. After infusion termination, SI decreased faster within the LV blood pool and the MI, as compared with the normal myocardium in either group, resulting in significant contrast between the MI and normal tissue (intermittent: 18 ± 7 vs 49 ± 13%, p = 0.002; continuous: 19 ± 8 vs 36 ± 9%, p = 0.004). Infarction sizes were similar in Mn(2+)- and GdDTPA-enhanced images at 4 and 3 weeks post injury, respectively. Thus, in vivo MEMRI differentiated infarcted from normal myocardium in pig hearts subjected to 4-week cryoinjury. Compared with intermittent infusion, continuous infusion minimized hemodynamic fluctuations.

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