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Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012 Jan;21(1):72-9. doi: 10.1097/MNH.0b013e32834de4ee.

Vitamin D: roles in renal and cardiovascular protection.

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1
Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. cyan@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Great progress has been made in recent years in understanding the expanding roles of the vitamin D endocrine system beyond calcemic regulation, including pathophysiological actions in the kidney and the cardiovascular system. The purpose of this review is to update the recent advance regarding the effects of vitamin D and its analogs on the renal and cardiovascular system.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Vitamin D deficiency is not only widely associated with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in humans, but may also accelerate the disease progression. Dysregulation of vitamin D metabolism caused by renal insufficiency contributes to the low vitamin D status. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated impressive therapeutic outcome with low-calcemic vitamin D analogs in renal and cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying the renal and cardiovascular protection involves regulation of multiple signaling pathways by vitamin D including nuclear factor κB, Wnt/β-catenin and the renin-angiotensin system.

SUMMARY:

The renal and cardiovascular protective activity of vitamin D revealed in recent studies has profound clinical implications. Nutritional correction of vitamin D deficiency and treatment with vitamin D analogs could be therapeutic options for renal and cardiovascular problems. New vitamin D analogs with better renal and cardiovascular therapeutic efficacy are highly desired. More randomized trials are needed to address these issues.

PMID:
22143249
PMCID:
PMC3574163
DOI:
10.1097/MNH.0b013e32834de4ee
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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