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Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2012 Feb;25(1):92-9. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834e9a56.

Herpes simplex virus-2 in the genital mucosa: insights into the mucosal host response and vaccine development.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Centre for Gene Therapeutics and Institute for Infectious Disease Research, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the predominant cause of genital herpes and has been implicated in HIV infection and transmission. Thus far, vaccines developed against HSV-2 have been clinically ineffective in preventing infection. This review aims to summarize the innate and adaptive immune responses against HSV-2 and examines the current status of vaccine development.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Both innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for an effective primary immune response and the generation of immunity. The innate response involves Toll-like receptors, natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and type I, II, and III interferons. The adaptive response requires a balance between CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells for optimal viral clearance. T-regulatory cells may be involved, although their exact function has yet to be determined. Current vaccine development involves the use of HSV-2 peptides or attenuated/replication-defective HSV-2 to generate adaptive anti-HSV-2 immune responses, however the generation of innate responses may also be an important consideration.

SUMMARY:

Although vaccine development has primarily focused on the adaptive response, arguments for innate involvement are emerging. A greater understanding of the innate and adaptive processes underlying the response to HSV-2 infection will provide the foundation for the development of an effective vaccine.

PMID:
22143115
DOI:
10.1097/QCO.0b013e32834e9a56
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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