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Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2011 Oct;25(5):683-701. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2011.10.016.

Miscellaneous non-inflammatory musculoskeletal conditions. Rare thesaurismosis and xanthomatosis.

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  • 1INSERM UMR 991, Service de Rhumatologie, Hôpital Sud, CHU, Rennes, France.


The focus will be on xanthomatosis, a tissue danger signal which needs to be recognized by the clinician, and its relationship with monogenetic lipoprotein disorders (cholesterol, triglycerides), bile acid and sterol metabolism, particularly on metabolic pathways and genetics as well as on musculoskeletal and cardiovascular involvement, and their implications for clinical management. The critical question is to assess coronary heart disease risk, requiring correct identification of the pattern of lipoprotein disorders and of the causes (primary or secondary). Familial hypercholesterolemia must be suspected in adults and children with raised total cholesterol, especially when there is a personal or a family history of premature coronary heart disease, usually requiring potent statins to achieve adequate LDL-cholesterol lowering, even if we do not know safety of long-term therapy and whether treatments of dyslipidemia early in life prevent cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable disease and must be suspected if there is a history of infantile chronic diarrhea and/or juvenile cataracts, even in the absence of tendon xanthomas. Current evidence for the prevention and screening, diagnosis, and treatment of dyslipidemia are available for the clinicians.

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