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Trop Med Int Health. 2012 Mar;17(3):316-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02922.x. Epub 2011 Dec 5.

In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Vitex madiensis, medicinal plant of Gabon.

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Université de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6014, COBRA IRCOF, UFR de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Rouen, France.


Vitex madiensis Oliv. (Lamiaceae) is traditionally used to treat malaria symptoms in Haut-Ogooué, Gabon. Leaves and stem barks extracts were obtained using dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and methanol (MeOH) as extraction solvents and fractionated on silica gel column. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and MeOH extracts and fractions was evaluated against the chloroquine-resistant FCB strain and field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using the DELI test. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested on MRC-5 and THP1 cells using the tetrazolium salt MTT colorimetric assay, and the selectivity index (SI) of each extract was calculated. CH(2)Cl(2) extract, the EA1 fraction from EtOAc extract of stem barks and cyclohexane (L(cycl)), dichloromethane (L(DM)) and butanol (L(but)) fractions from MeOH/H(2)O extract of leaves exhibited the highest in vitro antiplasmodial activity on FCB strain and field isolates (IC(50) from 0.53 to 4.87 μg/ml) with high selectivity index (of 20.15-1800). These data support the use of V. madiensis in malaria treatment along with continued investigations within traditional medicines in the search of new antimalarial agents. The EA1, C(6)H(12) and CH(2)Cl(2) fractions could be selected for future investigation or/and for the treatment of malaria symptoms after standardization.

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