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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Aug 1;60(4):369-76. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318243760b.

Lipid profiles in young HIV-infected children initiating and changing antiretroviral therapy.

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Empilweni Services and Research Unit, Rahima Moosa Mother and Child Hospital, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.



Both HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with dyslipidemias in adults, but there are fewer data on outcomes in young children. Here we examined lipid profile changes in a cohort of young children before and after suppression on an initial ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r)-based regimen and after switch to a nevirapine (NVP)-based regimen.


One hundred ninety-five HIV-infected children who initiated LPV/r-based therapy when <24 months of age at 1 site in Johannesburg, South Africa, and who achieved viral suppression (<400 copies/mL sustained for ≥ 3 months) were randomized to either continue on the LPV/r-based regimen (n = 99) or to switch to a NVP-based regimen (n = 96). Nonfasting concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) were measured pretreatment, at randomization when suppressed, and at 9, 20, and 31 months postrandomization.


Median age at treatment initiation was 9 months, and the initial regimen was maintained for an average of 9 months before randomization. TC, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL increased from pretreatment to randomization (P < 0.0001) and TC/HDL ratio and TG decreased (P < 0.0001). After switching to NVP, HDL was significantly higher (P < 0.02) and TC/HDL and TG significantly lower (P < 0.0001) through 31 months postswitch relative to remaining on the LPV/r-based regimen.


Initiating antiretroviral therapy was associated with changes to a more favorable lipid profile in young children. Switching from a LPV/r-based regimen to a NVP-based regimen accentuated and continued these improvements. Investigation of safe and effective methods for managing dyslipidemias in children of different ages in resource-limited settings is warranted.

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