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Int J Food Microbiol. 2012 Feb 1;153(1-2):166-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.11.003. Epub 2011 Nov 12.

Safety assessment of Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1 based on the complete genome.

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Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Institutes of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China.


We performed a comprehensive safety assessment of a probiotic based on the whole genome sequence and corresponding phenotypes. This was performed on Lactobacillus plantarum JDM1, a widely used commercial probiotic strain in China. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of sixteen antibiotics and the biogenic amine production of JDM1 were tested to supplement a traditional oral toxicity test. In total, fifty-one antibiotic resistance-associated genes, one hundred twenty-six virulence-associated genes, and twenty-three adverse metabolism-associated genes were found in JDM1. However, there were no toxin or hemolysin encoding genes, and safety-associated genes were rarely transferable. This approach can be generalized to provide a deep safety investigation of novel probiotic strains and greatly reveal the potential danger determinants and their molecular mechanisms. However, this kind of analysis reveals the theoretical maximum risk level as not all genes are efficient depending on environmental conditions.

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