Send to

Choose Destination
J Patient Saf. 2010 Jun;6(2):80-5. doi: 10.1097/PTS.0b013e3181cb43c9.

To ask or not to ask?: The results of a formative assessment of a video empowering patients to ask their health care providers to perform hand hygiene.

Author information

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.



To formatively evaluate the Hand Hygiene Saves Lives video and explore the perceptions and expectations of health care providers and laypersons regarding hand hygiene (HH), health care-associated infections, and patient empowerment using the Health Belief Model as a framework.


Four focus groups were conducted in February 2008 among laypersons (n = 18) and health care providers (n = 17). Qualitative data were coded for themes, and quantitative Likert scales ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very) were analyzed using SPSS.


Health care-associated infections were perceived to be somewhat common (mean, 3.4) and HH as very important (mean, 4.9). Laypersons reported being significantly more likely to ask their nurses (2.5 versus 4.3; P = 0.001) and physicians (3.3 versus 4.3; P = 0.010) to perform HH after viewing the video. The video's target audience was perceived to be families (42.0%) or patients (39.1%) and the message to be the importance of HH (45.5%) or creating comfort about asking (24.2%).


Empowering patients using tools such as a video may be an important patient safety advance to improve HH in health care settings and prevent health care-associated infections.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wolters Kluwer
Loading ...
Support Center