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Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;68(5):697-708. doi: 10.1007/s00228-011-1167-4. Epub 2011 Nov 29.

Intestinal OATP1A2 inhibition as a potential mechanism for the effect of grapefruit juice on aliskiren pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

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Translational Sciences, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, One Health Plaza, Bldg 438-3410, East Hanover, NJ 07936-1080, USA.



To conduct a mechanistic investigation of the interaction between aliskiren and grapefruit juice in healthy subjects.


Twenty-eight subjects received an oral dose of aliskiren 300 mg (highest recommended clinical dose) with 300 mL of either water or grapefruit juice in a two-way crossover design. Safety and pharmacokinetic analyses were performed. In vitro studies were performed in HEK293 cells to investigate the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporter-mediated uptake of aliskiren.


Co-administration of a single dose of aliskiren with grapefruit juice decreased the plasma concentration of aliskiren, with mean decreases in the AUC(inf), AUC(last), and C(max) of 38, 37, and 61%, respectively. The uptake of [¹⁴C]aliskiren into OATP2B1-expressing cells was essentially the same as that into control cells, and the inhibitor combination atorvastatin and rifamycin had no effect on [¹⁴C]aliskiren accumulation in either cell type. The uptake of [¹⁴C]aliskiren and [³H]fexofenadine was linear in OATP1A2-expressing cells and was reduced by naringin, with IC₅₀ values of 75.5 ± 11.6 and 24.2 ± 2.0 μM, respectively.


Grapefruit juice decreases exposure of aliskiren partially via inhibition of intestinal OATP1A2.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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