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Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2012 Jun;31(1-2):41-6. doi: 10.1007/s10555-011-9327-7.

The present and future of gene profiling in breast cancer.

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Service of Medical Oncology, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Paseo de la castellana 261, Madrid, Spain.


Gene signatures can provide prognostic and predictive information to help in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Although many of these signatures have been described, only a few have been properly validated. MammaPrint and OncoType offer prognostic information and identify low-risk patients who do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. With regard to prediction of response, molecular subtypes of breast cancer differ in their sensitivity to chemotherapy, although further studies are needed in this field. Cost, small sample size, and the need to use central laboratories are common limitations to the widespread use of these tools.

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