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Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Jan 3;46(1):404-9. doi: 10.1021/es2028718. Epub 2011 Dec 12.

Design and development of novel sensors for the determination of fluoride in water.

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Department of Instrumentation, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 682022, India.


The presence of high fluoride content in drinking water is a serious health hazard as it may lead to fluorosis, a serious bone disease. Taking into account of the importance of fluoride an attempt has been made to design and develop simple, low cost, and easy to use sensors for the in situ determination of fluoride in water. Two novel absorption sensors have been fabricated and their characterization done. The first one is a light emitting diode based sensor and the other one is an evanescent wave fiber optic sensor. Reagents prepared using standard methods are mixed with water sample containing fluoride ion, and the peak absorption wavelength is found out. Suitable light sources and photo detectors have been selected, and the sensors are designed to give accurate results over a wide range. A microcontroller based setup has been fabricated for recording the concentration of the measured sample in parts per billion. Both sensors have been used to analyze water samples collected from various sources and regions. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained by using a spectrophotometer used for fluoride measurement and found to have one to one correspondence.

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