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Diabetes Obes Metab. 2012 Jan;14 Suppl 1:20-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01509.x.

What matters in ADVANCE and ADVANCE-ON.

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CRCHUM-Technopôle Angus, 2901 rue Rachel Est, Montréal, Québec H1W 4A4, Canada.


Most recent meta-analyses of morbidity-mortality risk hazards brought about by the presence of diabetes as compared with non-diabetics underline the dominant risk of renal disease and cardiovascular outcomes and the relevance of blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and cholesterol levels. The translation of this reality into therapeutic guidelines always requires interventional evidence. Evidence for combined approaches in controlling for BP and blood glucose was provided by Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: PreterAx and DiamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE), conducted in over 11 000 subjects from 20 countries. Reduction in systolic BP by 7.1 mm Hg, in diastolic BP by 2.9 mm Hg and in glycated haemoglobin A1c by 0.61% points in the combined routine BP lowering and intensive blood glucose-control group after an average 4.3 years of follow-up resulted in a relative risk reduction of 28% in renal events, 24% in cardiovascular death and 18% in all-cause mortality. While other major intervention trials performed in similar populations with analogous goals did not achieve the same level of positive therapeutic evidence and even pointed to some risk of intensified treatment of type 2 diabetes, all three major studies [Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD), Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) and ADVANCE] showed significant reduction in renal events, the major risk in type 2 diabetes. The divergence for other outcomes underlines the importance of considering specific therapeutic approaches for glucose control and prudent targets for BP. The current target values for glycated haemoglobin of 6.5-7% and for BP of 130/80 mmHg appear safe and beneficial. The potential long-term benefit, particularly that of initial tight blood glucose control, suggested by recent post-trial evidence is currently being evaluated in the ADVANCE-ON study.

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