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Carcinogenesis. 2012 Feb;33(2):377-84. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgr277. Epub 2011 Nov 23.

Green tea polyphenols causes cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by suppressing class I histone deacetylases.

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Department of Urology, Case Western Reserve University & University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.


Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) reactivate epigenetically silenced genes in cancer cells and trigger cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; however, the mechanisms whereby these effects occur are not well understood. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative effects of GTP, which may be similar to those of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Exposure of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells (harboring wild-type p53) and PC-3 cells (lacking p53) with 10-80 μg/ml of GTP for 24 h resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of class I HDAC enzyme activity and its protein expression. GTP treatment causes an accumulation of acetylated histone H3 in total cellular chromatin, resulting in increased accessibility to bind with the promoter sequences of p21/waf1 and Bax, consistent with the effects elicited by an HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A. GTP treatment also resulted in increased expression of p21/waf1 and Bax at the protein and message levels in these cells. Furthermore, treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitor, MG132 together with GTP prevented degradation of class I HDACs, compared with cells treated with GTP alone, indicating increased proteasomal degradation of class I HDACs by GTP. These alterations were consistent with G(0)-G(1) phase cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms of GTP action in human prostate cancer cells irrespective of their p53 status and suggest a novel approach to prevention and/or therapy of prostate cancer achieved via HDAC inhibition.

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