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Craniomaxillofac Trauma Reconstr. 2009 Oct;2(3):117-24. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1215874.

Blindness following facial fracture: treatment modalities and outcomes.


Blindness is an uncommon, yet documented complication of facial trauma. Numerous case studies, series, and retrospective analyses have been published, with a reported incidence around 3%. Hippocrates first noted the association between maxillofacial trauma and blindness; millennia later, this was expounded upon by Berlin, who discovered such trauma may directly lead to fracturing of the optic canal. As diagnostic modalities such as computed tomographic scanning evolved, particularly over the past few decades, more specific, in-depth reports analyzing maxillofacial trauma and subsequent sequelae have emerged. It is the goal of this article to examine the current literature for those publications that have addressed the issue of blindness following facial trauma (including operative interventions) and create a concise review for maxillofacial surgeons.


Maxillofacial trauma; blindness; facial fracture; optic nerve injury; traumatic optic neuropathy

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