Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Pathol. 2012;40(2):300-11. doi: 10.1177/0192623311428473. Epub 2011 Nov 22.

Immunotoxicity of perfluorinated compounds: recent developments.

Author information

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina 27834, USA.


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are environmentally widespread, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental models and wildlife, including immunomodulation. The two most commonly detected compounds, which also generally occur in the highest concentrations in environmentally exposed organisms, are perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). PFOA and PFOS have been reported to alter inflammatory responses, production of cytokines, and adaptive and innate immune responses in rodent models, avian models, reptilian models, and mammalian and nonmammalian wildlife. Mounting evidence suggests that immune effects in laboratory animal models occur at serum concentrations below, within the reported range, or just above those reported for highly exposed humans and wildlife. Thus, the risk of immune effects for humans and wildlife exposed to PFCs cannot be discounted, especially when bioaccumulation and exposure to multiple PFCs are considered. This review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA, PFOS, and other PFCs in rodent models, alternative laboratory models, and wildlife.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center