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Health Promot Int. 2012 Dec;27(4):445-52. doi: 10.1093/heapro/dar087. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

How have health promotion frameworks considered gender?

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British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women's Health, Vancouver, BC, Canada.


This paper provides an overview of five key internationally recognized health promotion frameworks and assesses their consideration of gender. This analysis was conducted as part of the Promoting Health in Women project, a Canadian initiative focused on generating a framework for effective health promotion for women. To date, no review of health promotion frameworks has specifically focused on assessing the treatment of gender. This analysis draws on a comprehensive literature review that covered available literature on gender and health promotion frameworks published internationally between 1974 and 2010. Analysis of five key health promotion frameworks revealed that although gender was at times mentioned as a determinant of health, gender was never identified and integrated as a factor critical to successful health promotion. This superficial attention to the role of gender in health promotion is problematic as it limits our capacity to understand how gender influences health, health contexts and health promotion, as well as our ability to integrate gender into future comprehensive health promotion strategies.

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