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Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Feb;160(2):142-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2011.10.008. Epub 2011 Nov 21.

Maternal serum protein S forms in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction.

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  • 1Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Department of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Reproductive Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.



The clinical relevance of protein S deficiency in pregnant women remains controversial. Major debate exists regarding which parameter (total protein S antigen, free protein S antigen or functional protein S) should be evaluated in order to define protein S deficiency. The present study aimed to identify which of these parameters correlate with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).


A retrospective case-control study of women with IUGR (n=27) and healthy controls (n=123) in the third trimester of pregnancy.


The maternal serum of women in the IUGR group had significantly lower levels of functional and free protein S compared with the control group: 54.07 ± 24.72% vs 65.20 ± 17.95% (p<0.005) and 42.88 ± 11.01% vs 56.64 ± 13.30% (p<0.0001), respectively. No significant correlation was found between total protein S and IUGR.


Levels of functional and free protein S are correlated with IUGR.

Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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