Send to

Choose Destination
Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2011 Dec;40(4):787-807. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2011.09.005.

Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction: clinical features, diagnosis, and therapy.

Author information

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.


CIPO is the very “tip of the iceberg” of functional gastrointestinal disorders, being a rare and frequently misdiagnosed condition characterized by an overall poor outcome. Diagnosis should be based on clinical features, natural history and radiologic findings. There is no cure for CIPO and management strategies include a wide array of nutritional, pharmacologic, and surgical options which are directed to minimize malnutrition, promote gut motility and reduce complications of stasis (ie, bacterial overgrowth). Pain may become so severe to necessitate major analgesic drugs. Underlying causes of secondary CIPO should be thoroughly investigated and, if detected, treated accordingly. Surgery should be indicated only in a highly selected, well characterized subset of patients, while isolated intestinal or multivisceral transplantation is a rescue therapy only in those patients with intestinal failure unsuitable for or unable to continue with TPN/HPN. Future perspectives in CIPO will be directed toward an accurate genomic/proteomic phenotying of these rare, challenging patients. Unveiling causative mechanisms of neuro-ICC-muscular abnormalities will pave the way for targeted therapeutic options for patients with CIPO.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center