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Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Feb 1;302(3):E374-86. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00314.2011. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Oil composition of high-fat diet affects metabolic inflammation differently in connection with endotoxin receptors in mice.

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Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, CarMeN laboratory, Villeurbanne, France.


Low-grade inflammation observed in obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recent studies revealed that this would be linked to gut-derived endotoxemia during fat digestion in high-fat diets, but nothing is known about the effect of lipid composition. The study was designed to test the impact of oil composition of high-fat diets on endotoxin metabolism and inflammation in mice. C57/Bl6 mice were fed for 8 wk with chow or isocaloric isolipidic diets enriched with oils differing in fatty acid composition: milk fat, palm oil, rapeseed oil, or sunflower oil. In vitro, adipocytes (3T3-L1) were stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; endotoxin) and incubated with different fatty acids. In mice, the palm group presented the highest level of IL-6 in plasma (P < 0.01) together with the highest expression in adipose tissue of IL-1β and of LPS-sensing TLR4 and CD14 (P < 0.05). The higher inflammation in the palm group was correlated with a greater ratio of LPS-binding protein (LBP)/sCD14 in plasma (P < 0.05). The rapeseed group resulted in higher sCD14 than the palm group, which was associated with lower inflammation in both plasma and adipose tissue despite higher plasma endotoxemia. Taken together, our results reveal that the palm oil-based diet resulted in the most active transport of LPS toward tissues via high LBP and low sCD14 and the greatest inflammatory outcomes. In contrast, a rapeseed oil-based diet seemed to result in an endotoxin metabolism driven toward less inflammatory pathways. This shows that dietary fat composition can contribute to modulate the onset of low-grade inflammation through the quality of endotoxin receptors.

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