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Clin Radiol. 2012 Mar;67(3):263-76. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2011.04.018. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Extra-pulmonary manifestations of sarcoidosis.

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Radiology Department, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK.


Although, the diagnosis and evaluation of sarcoidosis has traditionally remained confined to the chest, its multi-system nature has been widely recognized. Radiological features of pulmonary sarcoidosis are well known but extra-pulmonary manifestations can produce a plethora of non-specific imaging findings that can affect subcutaneous tissue, and the neurological, cardiac, gastrointestinal, urological, liver, spleen, and skeletal systems. In the literature, there are various case reports and specific system reviews but there are few reviews that encompass all the extra-pulmonary manifestations. In this paper, we comprehensively review the imaging features of extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis with characteristic features as well as atypical presentations. In addition, we discuss the emerging role of nuclear medicine in sarcoidosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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