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J Emerg Trauma Shock. 2011 Oct;4(4):465-71. doi: 10.4103/0974-2700.86630.

Influence of prehospital fluid resuscitation on patients with multiple injuries in hemorrhagic shock in patients from the DGU trauma registry.

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1
Department of Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Essen, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Severe bleeding as a result of trauma frequently leads to poor outcome by means of direct or delayed mechanisms. Prehospital fluid therapy is still regarded as the main option of primary treatment in many rescue situations. Our study aimed to assess the influence of prehospital fluid replacement on the posttraumatic course of severely injured patients in a retrospective analysis of matched pairs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We reviewed data from 35,664 patients recorded in the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery (DGU). The following patients were selected: patients having an Injury Severity Score >16 points, who were ≥16 years of age, with trauma, excluding those with craniocerebral injuries, who were admitted directly to the participating hospitals from the accident site. All patients had recorded values for replaced volume and blood pressure, hemoglobin concentration, and units of packed red blood cells given. The patients were matched based on similar blood pressure characteristics, age groups, and type of accident to create pairs. Pairs were subdivided into two groups based on the volumes infused prior to hospitalization: group 1: 0-1500 (low), group 2: ≥2000 mL (high) volume.

RESULTS:

We identified 1351 pairs consistent with the inclusion criteria. Patients in group 2 received significantly more packed red blood cells (group 1: 6.9 units, group 2: 9.2 units; P=0.001), they had a significantly reduced capacity of blood coagulation (prothrombin ratio: group 1: 72%, group 2: 61.4%; P≤0.001), and a lower hemoglobin value on arrival at hospital (group 1: 10.6 mg/dL, group 2: 9.1 mg/dL; P≤0.001). The number of ICU-free days concerning the first 30 days after trauma was significantly higher in group 1 (group 1: 11.5 d, group 2: 10.1 d; P≤0.001). By comparison, the rate of sepsis was significantly lower in the first group (group 1: 13.8%, group 2: 18.6%; P=0.002); the same applies to organ failure (group 1: 36.0%, group 2: 39.2%; P≤0.001).

CONCLUSION:

The high amounts of intravenous fluid replacement was related to early traumatic coagulopathy, organ failure, and sepsis rate.

KEYWORDS:

Hemorrhagic shock; mortality; prehospital volume replacement; rescue time; trauma; trauma registry

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