Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Apr 22;279(1733):1646-54. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1916. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Diversification of acorn worms (Hemichordata, Enteropneusta) revealed in the deep sea.

Author information

1
Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California, , Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. osbornk@si.edu

Abstract

Enteropneusts (phylum Hemichordata), although studied extensively because of their close relationship to chordates, have long been considered shallow-water, burrowing animals. The present paper more than doubles the number of enteropneust species recorded in the deep sea based on high-resolution imaging and sampling with remotely operated vehicles. We provide direct evidence that some enteropneusts are highly mobile-using changes in posture and currents to drift between feeding sites-and are prominent members of deep, epibenthic communities. In addition, we provide ecological information for each species. We also show that despite their great morphological diversity, most deep-living enteropneusts form a single clade (the rediagnosed family Torquaratoridae) on the basis of rDNA sequences and morphology of the proboscis skeleton and stomochord. The phylogenetic position of the torquaratorids indicates that the group, after evolving from near-shore ancestors, radiated extensively in the deep sea.

PMID:
22090391
PMCID:
PMC3282343
DOI:
10.1098/rspb.2011.1916
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center