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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Jan;93(1):83-93. doi: 10.1007/s00253-011-3682-8. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

L-proline dehydrogenases in hyperthermophilic archaea: distribution, function, structure, and application.

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  • 1Analytical Research Center for Experimental Sciences, Saga University, Honjo-machi, Saga, Japan.


Dye-linked L-proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to ∆(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) in the presence of artificial electron acceptors. The enzyme is known to be widely distributed in bacteria and eukarya, together with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)-dependent P5C dehydrogenase, and to function in the metabolism of L-proline to L-glutamate. In addition, over the course of the last decade, three other types of ProDH with molecular compositions completely different from previously known ones have been identified in hyperthermophilic archaea. The first is a heterotetrameric αβγδ-type ProDH, which exhibits both ProDH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase activity and includes two electron transfer proteins. The second is a heterooctameric α(4)β(4)-type ProDH, which uses flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide, adenosine triphosphate, and Fe as cofactors and creates a new electron transfer pathway. The third is a recently identified homodimeric ProDH, which exhibits the greatest thermostability among these archaeal ProDHs. This minireview focuses on the functional and structural properties of these three types of archaeal ProDH and their distribution in archaea. In addition, we will describe the specific application of hyperthermostable ProDH for use in a biosensor and for DNA sensing.

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